Term Paper on the Musical Practices Of Nka Ima Cultural Group In Ikono Local | Download Complete Material

If you want to learn about the musical practices of a certain culture, one option is to write a term paper on the subject. This can be a challenging task, but it can also be very rewarding. Here are some tips on how to get started.

Term Paper on the Musical Practices Of Nka Ima Cultural Group In Ikono Local


Nka Ima is a socio-cultural musical ensemble in Ikono L.G.A in particular and in Ibibio traditional society in general. Inspite of its popularity in performances, not much has been written on its performance context and practices as well as the documentation of its song texts. This work, therefore, assessed the musical practices of this group. It also examined and documented the history and origin of Nka Ima Cultural Group, and as well transcribed the songs associated with their performance and practices. The study employed the survey design. The population included all the 30 members of the ensemble in Ikono. The research used both primary and secondary sources in obtaining data for the work. The primary source involved field-work, where the researcher conducted oral interview with some of the group members, collected the songs and made observation on the group. The secondary source data was gathered through literal and internet materials related to the study. The information gathered in the field were documented. The songs analysed, transcribed, and the indigenous language text, interpreted in English. The study revealed that the use of indigenous language in Nka Ima musical performances helps to transmit the culture heritage of the people to the young ones in the community. It was also discovered that the all women group helps to uplift the status of women morally and otherwise. Based on the result of the study, the researcher recommended among others, that more researches should be carried out on our socio-cultural musical groups in order to document the history, musical practices, song-texts, etc, to prevent them from extinction, and also serve as contributions to knowledge.

the song played. Other formation can be based on the interpretation of instrument played and song text.

4.5       Recruitment and Membership  

Membership into Nka Ima Cultural Group is voluntary to interested women who are indigenes and must be married. The performance of Nka Ima Cultural Group requires some musical abilities either in dancing, singing on playing of musical instruments. Recruitment of new members is done by the lead singer. Some items are required, such as assorted wine, local gin, local fowl, plantain, and money. The registration/membership fee is Five Thousand Naira (N5000) only. The dancers, singers and drummers are those who perform out of interest not because of hereditary inclinations (Obongawan Bibiana Archibong Effiong and Esther Ezekiel, personal communication, May 15, 2016).

4.6       Melodic Structure

The melodic structure of Nka Ima Cultural  Groups songs is mainly call and response. The call is usually done by the cantor who usually will be lead singer or the leader of the group. The response is taken by other members of the group. The stories that tell the audience about issues that bother the society, cautions, legends or stories that bring to limelight, someone’s atrocities. The cantor is free to play around the melody. She may decide to sing in a falsetto or pitch a little bit higher than the other singers.

4.7       Harmonic Structure  

The harmonic structure of Nka Ima songs is simple. The cantor may sing and the response is given in the same pitch but harmonized. Nka Ima music is usually done in the interval of a 3rd or 4th lower than the original pitch of the cantor. This is a typical African style of harmony, which the harmony is done on the spot, not rehearsed.

Song Texts and Translation

Title:               Yak Nyin Itan Akam Obon (Let US Say the Lord’s Prayer)

Genre:                        Folk

Form:             Call and Response

Texture:         Homophonic

Language:      Ibibio

Title:                           Iban Ikot Ewad Mben (Women of Ikot Ubehe drive gently-gently)

Genre:                                    Folk

Form:                         Call and Response

Texture:                     Homophonic

Language:                  Ibibio


Ibibio English
Iban Ikot Ubehe ewad mben mben ewad oo Women of Ikot Ubehe drive gently-gently oo
Ewad usuk-usuk Drive gently



Akpabot, S. E. (1975). Ibibio music in Nigeria culture. Michigan: Michigan State University Press.

Brown, J. (2006). China, Japan, Korea Culture and Customs. North Charleston: Book Surge.

Chernoff, J. M. (1979).  African rhythm and African sensibility: Aesthetic and social action in African musical idioms. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Duckles, V. H. (1967). Music references and research materials: An annotated Bibliography, Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Frederick, D. (2002). The history of music in performance. The art of musical interpretation from the renaissance to our day.

Katz, R. (1983). Heading makes our hearts happy: Spirituality and cultural transformation among the Kalahar. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Tradition.

Manabe, N. (2015). The revelation will not be televise: Protest music after Fukushima. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Oliver, E. (1994). Musical repertoires of the Ju/Hoansi: Identification and classification; proceedings of the meetings. Khoisan Studies Multidisciplinary Perspective, vol. 2, pp. 10.

Omojola, B. (1999) Cultural and social identity in Nigeria traditional music. Ibadan: IFRA.

Portnoy, K. (1954). The philosopher and music: A historical outline. New York: the Humanities Press.

Peters, S. W., Iwok, E. R. & Uya, O. E. (1994). Akwa Ibom State: The land of promise: A compendium. Lagos: Gabimo Publishing Co. Ltd.

Robert, R. (1989). A Greek English lexicon. Retrieved on august 15, 2016 on perseusperseus.truft.edu.    

 Udoh, S. A. (2014). Continuity and change in Ebre music of the Ibibio. International Journal of African Culture, Politics and Development. 8(2), 81-92

(ii)        Rebellion against justice, and

(iii)       Belief in a strong family system

These characteristics influence the cultural music and dance of the people because they affect the way they of thinking, believing and feeling, it could be seen that Nka Ima Cultural Group comprising folk music, instrumentation, folk singing and dance is one of the cultural symbols of the Ibibio’s people.

1.2       Statement of the Problem 

It is observed with dismay that most of the societies in Akwa Ibom State have had their interest turned away from their traditional norms due to the effect of Christianity and Western education. This is why it has become necessary to write about a traditional dance group, such as the Nka Ima Cultural Group. It seems the fact that lack of understanding of the role of Nak Ima Cultural group in human life also threatens its existence? This is why this study is necessary to examine the musical practices of the this women group.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the musical practices of Nka Ima Cultural Group. Specifically, he study aimed at

  • examine the roles of Nka Ima Cultural Group in Ikono Community in achieving socially desirable norms.
  1. documenting the historical and musical facets of the group in order to preserve and encourage its existence.
  2. Adding to the existing wealth of knowledge for posterity.
  3. documenting the orally transmitted information into written forms for academic purposes and for preservation from extinction.

1.4       Significance of the Study  

This study is significant in the following point:

  1. It will provide authentic data on Nka Ima performances through an ethno musicological investigation.
  2. The study will be of benefit to the teachers of African music, ethnomusicologists and students who will understand clearly the performance techniques of the Nka Ima Cultural Group.
  3. The study will provide information to communities, administrators and others on the progressive contributions they could make to encourage the teaching, learning, and the performance of traditional folk music.



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Back to top button